ICOPER Learning Outcome Definitions (LOD) schema


This specification is based on, and is an application profile of, the IEEE Reusable Competency Definition (IEEE RCD) IEEE Reusable Competency Definition IEEE-RCD. Currently, IEEE RCD is the only widely accepted standard for describing competencies. IEEE RCD is a continuation (and replacement) of the early efforts on the development of IMS Reusable Definition of Competency or Educational Objective (IMS RDCEO).

This specification extends IEEE RCD with one metadata element - learning outcome - "type" and its associated values to capture whether a learning outcome refers to knowledge, skill or competence. The aim is to help distinguish knowledge, skills and competence following the definitions of the European Qualification Framework (EQF).

It is important to note that the LOD schema is an application profile of IEEE RCD customized for ICOPER purposes, and is not a new specification or standard. Instances that conform to the LOD specification should also conform to the IEEE RCD standard.

General information

information to be gathered details (replace these explanations with your gathered information)
Name / title of source/model and version if applicable iCoper Learning Outcome Definitions - LOD
Stakeholder iCoper eContentPlus project
URL http://www.icoper.org/results/deliverables/D2-3 (Section 3.2.1)
Orientation Its a generic metadata model that can represent metadata about individual learning outcomes and competences outside their context. It can represent separate competences about jobs or educational intended or achieved learning outcomes.
Explicit / implicit This is an explicit model (Information model) that builds on IEEE RCD standard
Organisational competence NA
Number of people currently affected LOD is an application profile of the IEEE RCD standard, so very large community is affected
Sectors covered Education and training
User communities University administration, teachers and learners
Significant use cases http://www.icoper.org/results/deliverables/D2-3 (Section 4), a proof of concept implementations is provided. LOCs are exchanged between different systems and institutions using the common LOD application profile.
Significant business cases http://www.icoper.org/results/deliverables/D2-3  (Section 6); its rather feedback from business stakeholders on added value of representing and exchanging LOC related data.
Gather sample materials About 3000 LOCs are gathered in one repository, originating from different providers are available here http://oics.icoper.org/LOD/
The ATOM XML feed of the LOCs are here 
Key features influencing uptake IEEE RCD and its application profile LOD is very important for InLOC since its an international spec that also tries to represent metadata on LOCs outside their content. Important to note that LOD does not capture relationships between LOCs.

Features of the Model

This list provides the features of LOD analysed and related to InLOC.

N Features ? notes
00 More than one model 1 Just the definition, not structures.
01 Identifiers 1 Yes. Every LOC has an ID
02 Hierarchy(internal) 1 LOD is a metadata model for learning outcomes and the schema has an explicit structure.
03 Internal relationships 0 LOD represents metadata about one individual LOC; not data about relations
04 External relationships 1 Yes to elements of IEEE LOM and EQF
05 Conditionality/ optionality 0 Some elements are mandatory, optional or recommended, but not content
06 Text syntax 1 Yes. Learning outcomes are recommended to start with a verb and then rest of related concepts
07 Structured identifiers 1 LOD uses the the same structure of IEEE LOM which <identifier> with <catalog> and <entry> as sub elements
.....<catalog>: tell who is provider. <entry>: the identifier of the LOC in the provider
08 Classification 1 Yes. LOD enable classifying LOCs by type "skill", "knowledge", "competence"
... we just used Bloom Taxonomy to know if the LOC is a knowledge, skill or competence
09 Level attribution 0 This model is to represent an individual LOC
10 Level definition 0 No
11 Context 0 No
12 Evidence and assessment 0 No
13 Extensions 0 No 
14 Profiles 0 No
15 Adaptation 1 Yes, its possible to adapt LOD spec. to local use. Make profile
16 Definition by example 0 No
17 Learning resources 0 No
18 Learner records 0 No
19 Multilinguality 1 Yes. elements like title and description can be provided in several languages

Detailed information about the stakeholder or source

LOD model is an application profile of IEEE RCD and can be good bases for the seed model of InLOC, to make sure all elements of LOD are covered in InLOC IM for higher interoperability.

Stakeholder sources

  • IEEE Learning LTSC Competence workshop
  • iCoper partners who developed tools that use LOD schema to describe learning outcomes

Task S3: Express relevant models

LOD is a generic model for describing individual learning outcomes. Data model with elements and their attributes are listed in table below:

Identifier 1 A globally unique label that identifies the Reusable Learning Outcome (Knowledge, Skill and Competence). 
The Identifier is sufficient to reference the learning outcome definition in any other system. 

Similar to IEEE LOM, this element consists of two sub-elements , i.e. Catalog and Entry


M Catalog: WUW Entry: “www.iCoper.org/LODTax/LOD_Id-1.A.1.a.1”

A single mandatory text label for the learning outcome. This is a short human-readable name for the learning outcome. 

The Title may be repeated in multiple languages. Each translation is represented by an instantiation of LangString type. 

The identifier provides the definitive reference to the learning outcome. The title element provides a convenient, alternative, readable form.

M (“en”, "Principles of academic writing") 
(“de", “Grundlagen wissenschaftlichen Schreibens”)
Description 0..1

A human readable description of the learning outcome. This is an optional unstructured (opaque) “text blob” meant to be interpretable only by humans. 

The Description may be repeated in multiple languages.

R (“en“, “Students are able to explain the basic principles of academic writing”) 

(“de”, “Studierende sind in der Lage, die Grundlagen wissenschaftlichen Schreibens zu erklären”)
Type 0..1 A label that captures the type of learning outcome described. According to the European Qualification Framework (EQF), Learning Outcomes are of three types: Knowledge, Skill and Competence. 
Similar to IEEE LOM, this element consists of two sub-elements , i.e. Source and Value

R “knowledge”

-       M: Mandatory, R: Recommended

Guidance source requirements

to be added...