The official CEN Workshop Agreement is available free of charge via FTP from the CEN web site. Please download copies from there. All the material is available here.
InLOC — Application Profile of Europass Curriculum Vitae and Language Passport for Integrating Learning Outcomes and Competences
In this document, "Application Profile" is abbreviated to "AP".
- 1 Introduction
- 2 Proficiency levels in the Europass LP
- 2.1 Definition of the InLOC ProficiencyLevel feature
- 2.2 Linguistic skills example XML
- 2.3 Proficiency level modifications on XML Schema
- 3 Generic skills in the Europass CV
- 3.1 Definition of the InLOC Skills feature
- 3.2 Generic skills example XML
- 3.3 Generic skills modifications on XML Schema
- 4 Resources
- 5 References
Application profiles ("APs") have been discussed and used for well over a decade. For example:
- the ARIADNE Web Magazine issue 25 from September 2000 has an article, "Application Profiles: Mixing and Matching Metadata Schemas"; 
- the Dublin Core Metadata Initiative has published "Guidelines for Dublin Core Application Profiles" in 2009; 
- the relevant Wikipedia article was initiated in 2006. 
APs for InLOC are much simpler than the more complex cases envisaged in these cited documents. APs for InLOC may include both small modifications to an existing specification, and recommendations within that specification on how to use the existing structures to refer to InLOC information, but there is no reason to change the main functional requirements of the existing specification, and this is not attempted. The purpose of APs for InLOC is simply to fulfill an extra requirement, which is to refer effectively to one or more definitions of learning outcome or competence (LOC), in a way that enables identification of and cross-reference between LOCs across different application, specifically (but not exclusively) allowing reference to InLOC-formatted information.
In the Guidelines  to InLOC, there is a general explanation of how Integrating InLOC can work, referring to the particular European Learner Mobility specifications of particular interest in the context of InLOC. The job of the APs for InLOC documentation here is to provide technical details of how this can be done.
There is no need for any profiling of the InLOC Information Model  itself, at least for InLOC to work well together with other European Learner Mobility specifications. Profiles may be desired for specific applications of InLOC, e.g. for the consistent creation of a set of competence standards by a particular authority, but this is understood as beyond the scope of the InLOC project.
- citizens communicate their skills and qualifications effectively when looking for a job or training;
- employers understand the skills and qualifications of the workforce;
- education and training authorities define and communicate the content of curricula.
"Five documents to make your skills and qualifications clearly and easily understood in Europe" is how the Europass web site presents itself.
Two of the five documents are completed by European citizens:
- the Curriculum Vitae (CV)  gives an overview of personal skills; and
- the Language Passport (LP)  provides a self-assessment of language skills using standardised levels.
In addition, the European Skills Passport (ESP) was launched together with the new CV. The ESP is an easy-to-use electronic folder to help students, workers or job-seekers build up a personal, modular inventory of personal skills and qualifications acquired throughout life. It can contain a range of documents (Language Passport, copies of degrees, attestations of employment, etc.). When attached to a Europass CV, the European Skills Passport will reinforce the CV by bringing evidence of skills and qualifications listed.
The remaining three documents are issued by national education and training authorities or institutions:
- the Europass Mobility  shows work and education experience in other European countries;
- the Certificate Supplement  gives the expected skills and competences acquired with vocational qualifications; and
- the Diploma Supplement  details the achievements of holders of diplomas or degrees, including the subjects studied and the grades achieved.
Working closely with the European Commission and a network of National Europass Centres (NECs), Cedefop
- drafted and revises Europass documents;
- designed and maintains the multilingual web site, providing expertise on content, language processing and IT;
- supports the NECs that implement Europass at national level.
The relationship of InLOC to four of the five Europass documents (excluding the Europass Mobility) is discussed in the Integrating InLOC section of the Guidelines. For the purposes of InLOC APs, Europass is treated as outlined in the three short subsections following.
The is the topic of the main part of this present document, "InLOC — Application Profile of Europass Curriculum Vitae and Language Passport for Integrating Learning Outcomes and Competences". The full AP given here shows how a Europass CV or Language Passport could refer or link to InLOC information. The proposal is in tune with the new concept of a European Skills Passport, and extends it to allow clearer, more complete and fully functional references to related to learning outcomes or competences described or mentioned in a CV or LP.
This AP work is based on the latest officially published XML schema from Cedefop (v3.0, dated February 2013) http://europass.cedefop.europa.eu/xml/EuropassSchema_V3.0.xsd used by their online CV/LP editor. It also takes into consideration Cedefop work in progress towards their next Europass Schema release (V3.1-rc1).
The InLOC AP, detailed below, extends the official XSD so that it can represent links to InLOC formatted LOC information effectively. The associated XSD file is available at http://purl.org/net/inloc/EuropassSchema_V3.0-InLOC-AP2.xsd.
A full example with LP and computer skills is available on the InLOC project wiki.
Practical implementation of the Diploma Supplement is covered by the ELMO project. Following consultation with the ELMO team, the ELMO CWA will incorporate the requirements of InLOC directly. This is highly preferable to having a separate AP for the Diploma Supplement.
Early draft InLOC project materials for the ELMO Application Profile are available.
In the Integrating InLOC section of the Guidelines, the general approach to this integration is explained. The technical details of one possible integration, and the reasoning about why it is not yet suitable for any standardization, is explained in the separate document, InLOC and the Europass CS.
The foreign language skills section of the Europass CV/LP is extended in order to allow reference to a language competencies framework defined externally using InLOC, such as the CEFR. An optional URI to reference the LOCdefinition or LOCstructure is placed in a new resourceRef attribute, and an optional value/number related to the level of that competency (if appropriate) is placed in a new number attribute.
This has similarities to the Europass v3.1 drafts.
- The resourceRef is present in the draft v3.1 Europass schema, so the InLOC AP uses the same name for the attribute to be as close as possible.
- There is no equivalent of the number attribute in the Europass v3.0 or v3.1 release (together referred to as 3.x in the rest of this document). The number is an important feature of the InLOC Information Model, but this has not yet been comprehended in Europass.
The ProficiencyLevel element is already present in the Europass schema v3.x, but InLOC extends it.
Each ProficiencyLevel element is redefined as:
- a string (as originally) with two new attributes:
Here is some example XML for linguistic skills, first following the original Europass format, then following the InLOC AP.
This first illustration of a Skills sub-tree with a ProficiencyLevel element shows the original version without any modification. The validity of this XML is unaffected by the InLOC AP.
This second illustration contains the two new InLOC attributes. A link to the full LP XML example is given in the resources section.
Here, and elsewhere below, the indentation has been modified to allow for print media.
The XSD fragments below shows the related modifications on the Europass base schema in order to add resourceRef and number attributes for ProficiencyLevel for each Language skills:
The first modification is in the type "ForeignLanguageSkillType". The ProficiencyLevel element is extended, to apply to all its sub-competencies (Listening, Reading, Writing...). The related type "CEFLanguageLevelType" is changed to a new one "InLOCCEFLanguageLevelType" that contains the extensions.
The second modification introduces a new type – "InLOCCEFLanguageLevelType" – which extends the existing "CEFLanguageLevelType" with two new attributes resourceRef and number.
The InLOC AP extends the Europass skills section in order to allow:
- multiple Skill sub-elements for each basic skill type (Communication, Organisation, JobRelated, Computer and Other) so that each skill could have specific content and references (attachment files to add evidence);
- a reference linking to an external competency framework, using the resourceRef attribute with a URI value;
- multiple ProficiencyLevel elements to allow links with other competency frameworks;
- with resourceRef (URI) and number (decimal) attributes for defining the level, and a string Label (called Evaluation) to detail or explain this in a human readable perspective.
Each Skills sub-element that is based on "GenericSkillType" is set to multiple (unbounded in the XML schema) with :
- one additional attribute resourceRef that indicates the URI of the related LOC definition
- additional ProficiencyLevel sub-elements that could be multiple (unbounded in the XML schema)
- supports a textual description (string)
- using an Evaluation (string) sub-element
- and two optional attributes:
- resourceRef — a URI pointing to the LOC definition for the specific level
- number — a decimal number referred to the numbers defined in the framework, giving the claimed level of the user
- supports a textual description (string)
The example XML given here relates to computer skills, a Europass CV "GenericSkillType".
The first version shows the way in which the original XML might be represented. Note that there is only one Computer element, into which a text list must be placed.
The second version follows the InLOC AP, which has been extended to allow reference to a European competency framework (e-CF). The e-CF competency framework is based on EQF European levels and so a number (level) is associated. Note how each separate skill is now represented separately, and how each skill has references into potential frameworks that define it, along with optional levels within the defining frameworks.
Again, this is similar to Europass v3.1 work in progress.
- The draft work in progress for the next Europass schema allows multiplicity of skills within each main generic skills sections (Communication, Organisational, JobRelated, Computer, Other) as well as a resourceRef attribute for each Skill and ProficiencyLevel.
- The number attribute is still missing. The Evaluation sub-element for ProficiencyLevel has no specific type associated (anyType), and the InLOC AP restricts it to be a string.
The code below shows the 4 related modifications on the Europass base schema:
- GenericSkillType elements may be multiple;
- GenericSkillType elements may have multiple ProficiencyLevel sub-elements;
- GenericSkillType elements may have a resourceRef attribute;
- ProficiencyLevel elements for generic skills may have resourceRef and number attributes and Label sub-elements.
The main type used for generic skills, "GenericSkillType", is modified, in order to support multiplicity of sub-competency associated with its generic competency elements (Communication, Organisational, JobRelated, Computer, Other) a new sub-element Skill is introduced with unbounded multiplicity (maxOccurs = "unbounded"), which means that all these Skill elements could be present multiple times in the same generic skill element (Communication, Organisational...).
For comparison, here is the original Europass version of the complexType definition.
- "SkillType" elements may have multiple ProficiencyLevel sub-elements.
- "SkillType" elements may have a single resourceRef attribute.
Again, here is the original Europass version, for comparison.
For ProficiencyLevel within "Generic" skills, a new type "InLOCProficiencyLevelType" is created, in order to allow two new attributes resourceRef and number, together with an Evaluation sub-element, used as a string label.
There is no direct equivalent in the original XSD v3.0. The Evaluation element and resourceRef attribute are based on the draft v3.1 XSD as presented below.
The replacement EuropassSchema v3.0 AP XSD is available at http://purl.org/net/inloc/EuropassSchema_V3.0-InLOC-AP2.xsd. This XSD file itself is not substantially changed, but imports the other ones needed, including the substantially changed EuropassLearnerInformation XSD.
A full example with LP and computer skills is available on the InLOC project wiki.
Europass is not the only interoperability specification dealing with competence-related information. InLOC has also worked on an HR-XML Application Profile.
The web pages for all the following references were accessed in February 2013.
-  Rachel Heery & Manjula Patel (2000) Application profiles: mixing and matching metadata schemas. Ariadne Web Magazine, Issue 25. Available at http://www.ariadne.ac.uk/issue25/app-profiles.
-  Karen Coyle & Thomas Baker (2009) Guidelines for Dublin Core Application Profiles. Dublin Core Metadata Initiative. Available at http://dublincore.org/documents/profile-guidelines/.
-  Wikipedia (2006--2012) Application profile. Available at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Application_profile.
-  InLOC project (2013) InLOC — Guidelines including the integration of Learning Outcomes and Competences into existing specifications. Available from http://purl.org/net/inloc/Guidelines.
-  InLOC project (2013) InLOC — Information Model for Learning Outcomes and Competences. Available from http://purl.org/net/inloc/Information+Model.
-  Europass (2013) Web site: http://europass.cedefop.europa.eu/en/home.
-  Europass (2013) Europass: Curriculum Vitae. Web pages: http://europass.cedefop.europa.eu/en/documents/curriculum-vitae.
-  Europass (2013) Europass: Language Passport. Web pages: http://europass.cedefop.europa.eu/en/documents/european-skills-passport/language-passport.
-  Europass (2013) Europass: Europass Mobility. Web pages: http://europass.cedefop.europa.eu/en/documents/european-skills-passport/europass-mobility.
-  Europass (2013) Europass: Certificate Supplement. Web pages: http://europass.cedefop.europa.eu/en/documents/european-skills-passport/certificate-supplement.
-  Europass (2013) Europass: Diploma Supplement. Web pages: http://europass.cedefop.europa.eu/en/documents/european-skills-passport/diploma-supplement.