Personal Achieved Learning Outcomes (PALO)


The Personal Achieved Learning Outcomes (PALO) data model is a simple schema proposed to represent information on knowledge, skills and competences achieved by a person (a learner), and the relations between those outcomes. Furthermore, information on the context where the learning outcomes are obtained or  applied, evidence records (assessment), and levels (e.g. proficiency level) associated to the outcomes are also part of this schema.

PALO was developed in iCoper eContentPlus EU project; beside the LOD schema.

General information

(see Example source guidance)

information to be gathered details
Name / title of source/model and version if applicable Personal Achieved Learning Outcomes (PALO)
Stakeholder iCoper eContentPlus project
URL (Section 3.2.3)
Orientation This data model represents information about a set of personal achieved or desired learning outcomes. In addition to information on evidence related to achieved learning outcomes, levels and context where outcomes are achieved.
Explicit / implicit This is an information model and can represent info on explicit LOCs.
Organisational competence NA
Number of people currently affected  
User communities University administration, teachers and learners
Significant use cases (Section 4.5.2), a proof of concept implementations in Moodle LMS is provided.
Significant business cases  
Sample materials  
Key features influencing uptake PALO links LOCs to level, context and evidence data. This data is so important for InLOC and information captured in PALO should be covered in IlOC when relevant. The interoperability with PALO should be maintained.


(see the Features page or the separate pages for each feature)

N Features ? notes
00 More than one model 1  
01 Identifiers 1  
02 Hierarchy (internal) NA  
03 Internal relationships NA  
04 External relationships 1  
05 Conditionality / optionality NA  
06 Text syntax NA  
07 Structured identifiers 0 PALO uses a URI as identifier
08 Classification NA  
09 Level attribution 1 This model represents a profile (set of personal LOCs) of a person.
10 Level definition 0 PALO represents data on levels whatever the level schema they belong to. The idea was to support attaching different level info to LOCs and not binding PALO to one level scheme.
11 Context 1 Data about several types of context information is represented.
12 Evidence and assessment 1 Data about several types of assessment and evidence information is represented.
13 Extensions 0  
14 Profiles 1 is possible to create a profile for desired outcomes
15 Adaptation 1 most elements are optional and can be adapted to needs of community
16 Definition by example 1 See PALO instance example diagram below
17 Learning resources 0  
18 Learner records 1 only a link to evidence records
19 Multilinguality 1 Metadata of title and description info can be represented in several languages using LangString

Any other or longer information

PALO Data Model

PALO Data Model v1.1

PALO Instance Example

Guidance requirements